Developers (DVP) whose projects adversely affect WL must, as prescribed in reg's. & guidance issued by the Army Corps of Eng. & the EPA, first avoid & then minimize adverse impacts to WL. When adverse impacts are unavoidable, the DVP is required to compensate by restoring a former WL, enhancing a degraded WL, creating a new WL, or preserving an existing WL. One method of mitigation is for DVP to pay fees to public entities or private non-profit natural resources mgmt. org's. that use them to establish WL (known as in-lieu-fee (ILF) org's. ). This report examines the increased use of the ILF mitigation option, & also addresses the use of ad hoc arrang. as a mitigation option. Illus.Jones, Gary L. is the author of 'Wetlands Protection Assessments Needed to Determine Effectiveness of In-Lieu-Fee Mitigation' with ISBN 9780756716455 and ISBN 0756716454.