1. Critical Thinking and Reading. Active, Critical Habits of Mind. Components of a Close, Critical Reading.2. Critical Thinking and Writing. Writing a summary. Writing an evaluation. Writing an analysis (an application paper). Writing a synthesis.3. Planning, Developing, and Writing a Draft. Discovering your topic, purpose, and audience. Generating ideas and information. Reviewing and categorizing ideas and information. Writing a thesis and sketching your paper. Writing a draft. Student paper: Rough draft.4. The Process of Revision. Early revision: Rediscovering your main idea. Later revision: Bringing your main idea into focus. Final revision. Responding to editorial advice from peers or professors. Sample paper: Final draft.5. The Paragraph and the Paper. The relationship of paragraphs to sections. The paragraph: Essential features. Writing and revising to achieve paragraph unity. Writing and revising to achieve paragraph coherence. Writing and revising to achieve well-developed paragraphs. Writing and revising paragraphs of introduction and conclusion.6. Writing and Evaluating Arguments. An overview of argument. Making a claim (an argumentative thesis). Gathering evidence. Linking evidence to your claim. Making rebuttals. Preparing to write an argument. Evaluating arguments and avoiding common errors.7. Constructing Sentences. Understanding sentence parts. Understanding basic sentence patterns. Expanding sentences with single-word modifiers. Modifying and expanding sentences with phrases. Modifying and expanding sentences with dependent clauses. Classifying sentences.8. Case in Nouns and Pronouns. Using pronouns as subjects. Using pronouns as objects. Using nouns and pronouns in the possessive case. In compound construction, use pronouns in the objective or subjective form according to their function in the sentence. Pronouns paired with a noun take the same case as the noun. Choose the appropriate form of the pronouns whose, who, whom, whoever, and whomever depending on the pronoun's function. Choose the case of a pronoun in the second part of a comparison depending on the meaning intended.9. Verbs. Verb Forms. Tense. Voice. Mood.10. Agreement. Subject-Verb Agreement. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement.11. Adjectives and Adverbs. Distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs. Use an adverb (not an adjective) to modify verbs as well as verbals. Use an adverb (not an adjective) to modify another adverb or an adjective. Use an adjective (not an adverb) after a linking verb to describe a subject. Use comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs. Avoid double comparisons, double superlatives, and double negatives. Avoid overusing nouns as modifiers.12. Sentence Fragments. Check for completeness of sentences. Eliminate fragments: Revise dependent clauses set off as sentences. Eliminate fragments: Revise phrases set off as sentences. Eliminate fragments: Revise repeating structures or compound predicates set off as sentences.13. Comma Splices and Fused Sentences. Identify fused sentences and comma splices. Correct fused sentences and comma splices in one of five ways.14. Pronoun Reference. Make pronouns refer clearly to their antecedents. Keep pronouns close to their antecedents. State a pronoun's antecedent clearly. Avoid mixing uses of the pronoun it. Use the relative pronouns who, which, and that appropriately.15. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. Misplaced Modifiers. Dangling Modifiers.16. Shifts and Mixed Constructions. Shifts. Mixed Constructions. Incomplete or Illogical Sentences.17. Being Clear, Concise, and Direct. Revise to elimiRosen, Leonard J. is the author of 'The Allyn & Bacon Handbook', published 2002 under ISBN 9780321106209 and ISBN 0321106202.