In the 19th century, Europe exported its politics, goods, ideas, customs - and not least, its sports, to the rest of the world. This imperialism began a process of cultural diffusion in which sport became a cultural bond, moral metaphor and political symbol. It was a two-way process, for as soon as the world beyond Europe became known to the Europeans, sports from other parts of the world entered Europe. The sports of Europe and the United States were imitated and assimilated and became symbols of national and cosmopolitan identity. This work examines the national and international importance of sport and its role in shaping post-millennium global culture.Mangan, J. A. is the author of 'Europe, Sport, World Shaping Global Society' with ISBN 9780714651477 and ISBN 0714651478.