The distinction between individualism and collectivism (I-C) has been useful in understanding differences in the world's cultures and the developing selves that they spawn. Contributing chapters to this volume examine the multiplicity of developing selfhood that exists within and between cultures. In so doing, they explore the coexistence of self-cultivation and social obligation among the Chinese, the coexistence of deep spiritual interiority and social duty in urban India, changing patterns of identity in immigrant families, and how autonomy functions in the service of social relations among American adolescents. A uniting theme in the chapters argues that individuality and connectedness cannot exist independent of each other. Although there are dramatic differences in how they are constructed, individual and communal dimensions of selfhood must be represented in some form in selves that develop in all cultures. The traditional view of I-C holds that in individualist (most North American and Western-European) cultures, individuals develop a sense of self as separate, autonomous, and independent of others. In contrast, collectivist cultures (for example, many Asian cultures) place primary value on group orientation, the goals and needs of others, and readiness to cooperate. However, despite its utility, the I-C dimension can obscure an analysis of the complexity of selves that develop in individualist and collectivist cultures. Individuality and interiority are represented in selves that develop within cultures considered collectivistic; conversely; selves in individualist cultures are defined through relations with others. This work represents a breakthrough in understanding the complex and inter-related issues of I-C in both individualist and collectivist cultures. This is the 104th volume of the Jossey-Bass quarterly report series New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development.Mascolo, Michael F. is the author of 'Culture and Developing Selves Beyond Dichotomization', published 2004 under ISBN 9780787976262 and ISBN 0787976261.