Is democracy in Latin America in trouble, as many now argue? Or is the increasingly overt political participation of both ?average? and marginalized citizens evidence to the contrary? This important collection focuses on citizenship to shed light on the dynamics and obstacles that the region's democracies now face. The authors place citizenship in the context of democratic theory and explore varying conceptions of the term. They also consider a range of challenges to meaningful citizenship. In the final section of the book, practitioners reflect on their experiences in advocating for a more active citizenry, and on ways to promote citizenship in Latin America.Joseph S. Tulchin, former director of the Latin American Program and a senior scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, is editor of the Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Meg Ruthenberg served as program associate at the Latin American Program in 2002?2005.Contents: Introduction: Toward an Analysis of Citizenship in Latin America'the Editors. Latin American Citizenship and Democratic Theory?F. Hagopian. Conceptions of Citizenship. Citizenship Regimes, the State, and Ethnic Cleavages?D. Yashar. Citizenship in Disjunctive Democracies?J. Holston. Fields of Citizenship?A. Armony. Democracy and Citizenship in Latin America?J.H. Carens. Challenges for Citizenship. Neopluralism and Citizenship in Latin America?P. Oxhorn. Democracy Across Cultures: Does Gender Make a Difference?R.A. Camp and K. Yanner. Crime and Violence: Challenges to Democracy in Brazil?L. Bitencourt. Democracy Assistance in Creating Citizenship?C. Sabatini. Promoting Active Citizenship. Between Paradoxes and Challenges: Promoting Citizenship in Bolivia?C.B. Ruiz. Democracy and Participation: The Case of Argentina?C. March. Citizen Representation and Participation in Ecuador?C. Montufar. Conclusion. Reconceptualizing Citizenship?H.C. Boyle. Citizens: Made, Not Born'the Editors.Tulchin, Joseph S. is the author of 'Citizenship in Latin America ', published 2006 under ISBN 9781588264909 and ISBN 1588264904.