The history of their literature predates Black women's acquisition of literacy. Orature, rooted in storytelling and the African/African-American folk tradition, was the province of Black women. Thus, when Black women began to create literary works, they looked to their foremothers, recasting orature into literature. Binding Cultures investigates the cultural bonds between African and African-American women as illustrated in the writings of contemporary authors of the United States and West Africa. The first section explores the writings of Nigerian Flora Nwapa and Ghanaians Efua Sutherland and Ama Ata Aidoo, writers who focus on the role of women in passing on cultural values to future generations. The second section of the study is devoted to African-American writers Alice Walker, Toni Morrison, and Paule Marshall, who in self-conscious evocation of African culture help create a more integrated African-American community.Wilentz, Gay is the author of 'Binding Cultures Black Women Writers in Africa and the Diaspora' with ISBN 9780253207142 and ISBN 0253207142.